The researchers first moved the memory of one living being to another

The world's first memory transplant was just achieved in marine snails.

Now, biologists at the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) have pulled off something similar - at least on a gastropod level - by effectively transferring a memory from a trained snail into the mind of an untrained one.

"I think not long from now, we could possibly utilize RNA to enhance the impacts of Alzheimer's malady or post-awful pressure issue", said David Glanzman, senior creator of the investigation and a UCLA educator of integrative science and physiology and of neurobiology.

"The study suggests that RNA populations are the missing link in the search for memory", Bridget Queenan, a neuroscientist at the University of California, Santa Barbara, who was not involved in the study, writes in an email to The Scientist. The research provides new clues in the search for the physical basis of memory. The UCLA team applied mild electric shocks to the creatures' tails in order to provoke a defense mechanism - a withdrawal reflex in which the snails contracted to protect themselves from harm. By repeatedly shocking the snail's tail, the animal learns to stay in that defensive position when touched on the siphon, even weeks after the shocks end. They found that the injected sea snails replicated the same sensitivity as of the donor. Soon after, the RNA from the subject was extracted and injected into another sea snail to see what happened. All seven of these snails reacted to stimuli in the same way as the trained snails, contracting for about 40 seconds on average.

"It's as though we transferred the memory", said Glanzman, who is also a member of UCLA's Brain Research Institute. Unsurprisingly, this control group showed no signs of sensitization.

The researchers extracted RNA, which was accumulated in the nervous system of animals after the shocks, and not sensitized.

In a statement for The Guardian, Glanzman commented on the nature of the experiment, noting that the type of memories that were transplanted from one snail to another was crucial to the success of the procedure.

Scientists have found that for the production of reflex answer sensory neurons, which are excitable in the presence of certain RNA. (Each neuron has several thousand synapses.) Glanzman holds a different view, believing that memories are stored in the nucleus of neurons.

Scientists know more about the cell biology of this simple form of learning in this animal than any other form of learning in any other organism, Glanzman said.

Researchers say the cells and molecular processes of snails are similar to that of humans. In the 1940s, Canadian psychologist Donald Hebb proposed memories are made in the connections between neurons, called synapses, and stored as those connections grow stronger and more abundant.

There are many kinds of RNA, and in future research, Glanzman wants to identify the types of RNA that can be used to transfer memories.

(Copyright © 2015. All Rights Reserved.)
 
Recommended

'Vomitive. Pathetic': Lars Von Trier film prompts mass walkouts at Cannes
In the end, it looks like The House That Jack Built might end up being shocking for the sake of being shocking and little else. Lars von Trier's made his grand return to the Cannes Film Festival today with his latest film " The House that Jack Built ".

We Now Know When The BMW 8 Series Coupe Will Break Cover
For those still holding out for the crown jewel of the 8 Series, Motor1 says BMW has promised the M8 will arrive later in 2018. When the 24 Hours of Le Mans kicks off next month, BMW plans to enter not one but two M8 GTE race cars.

USA diplomat involved in road accident in Pakistan returns home amid controversy
Last week, the Islamabad High Court had ruled that the USA diplomat did not have "absolute immunity". An Islamabad court has ruled that Hall's diplomatic immunity does not protect him in the case.

Pakistan Vs Ireland: Kevin O'Brien's Century Made Contest Exciting
Two more singles took him to 99, whereupon Pakistan turned back to their main man, Mohammad Amir, much to O'Brien's chagrin. O'Brien has looked a veteran of the Test arena in his first five-day match.

Marchessault-led Golden Knights top Jets 3-1 in Game 2
Vegas became the first team other than Nashville to beat the Jets in Bell MTS Place since the Los Angeles Kings on February 20. Vegas Golden Knights forward scored 2 goals in Game 2 victory over Winnipeg Jets . "Everybody has to be more competitive.

Promising universal cure for the common cold targets human cell protein
The scientists found they were able to block replication of several strains of the virus without human cells being affected. Additionally, the molecule also works against viruses related to the cold virus, such as polio and foot-and-mouth disease.

US to lift sanctions if NoKor dismantles nuke arms program
U.S. researchers say North Korea has already begun dismantling its Punggye-ri nuclear test site in the country's northeast. Pyongyang has said it does not need nuclear weapons if the security of its regime is guaranteed.

Retro Studios may be working on a Star Fox racing game
The first claimed that Super Smash Bros . and Pokémon will be the focal points of Nintendo's E3 booth this year. Nintendo's annual E3 presentation will be broadcast at 9am PT on June 12.

Khloe Kardashian Reveals Which Family Member First Suggested the Name True
True turned one month on Saturday, and in celebration Kardashian shared clear videos of her daughter for the first time . Khloe's followers were quick to ask if the baby looked like her or Tristan, though most felt she looked like the father.

US Secretary of State Mike Pompeo promises North Korea 'prosperous' future
Washington has demanded Pyongyang give up chemical and biological weapons, in addition to nuclear weapons and programs. He was sentenced in 2016 to 10 years in prison with hard labor after being convicted of espionage.

Irish ladies lead the way on BAFTA TV Awards red carpet
Netflix was one of the winners at this year's BAFTAs but it failed to pick up the Best Drama category. John Motson was honored with a special award on the same day he retired from sports commentary.

Tristan Thompson: Celtics 'Punked Us'
Thompson said he brings toughness and energy off the bench, but he's ready if called upon to set the tone as a starter. You get up for these games". "We had played well with that lineup, and it got us to this point".

Plane makes emergency landing in China
The co-pilot suffered facial injuries while the flight attendant was slightly hurt during the landing, the statement said. Liu said he had to fly the aircraft manually because the automatic systems were not functioning.

Pompeo and Bolton outline North Korea plans as talks approach
Pompeo said Trump is in a unique position. "He'll probably watch this show at some point", the secretary told " Fox News Sunday". They were joined by Kim Dong Chul, an American who had been held in North Korea against his will for over 2 ½ years.

Harry Reid receiving treatment for pancreatic cancer
John McCain of Arizona, who himself is battling mind most cancers, tweeted his effectively needs to his former colleague. Reid, 78, who spent decades in Democratic leadership in the Senate , is being treated at Johns Hopkins Cancer Center.


More News

News
More News